Scientific research & other resources on neonicotinoids

Much has been written and is available to the reader online on the subject of neonicotinoids and their linkage to bee poisonings. Among these are the following reports and peer-reviewed papers that the OBA believes to be particularly relevant and useful. We will keep this section updated with new information as it appears.

Peer Reviewed Papers:

  1. Michelle L. Hladik, Dana W. Kolpin, Kathryn M. Kuivila, Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USAScience  Direct  June 2014
  2. Caspar Hallmann, Ruud Foppen, Chris van Turnhout, Hans deKroon, Eelke Jongejans Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations. Nature July 2014
  3. Richard J Gill, Nigel E. Raine. Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behavious induced by sublethal pesticide exposure. Functional Ecology, British Ecological Society July 7, 2014 
  4. David Gibbons, Christy Morrissey,, Pierre Mineau A Review of the direct and indirect efects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2014
  5. Chensheng Lu, Kenneth M. Warchol, Richard A. Callahan Sublethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disorder. Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health. Bulletin of Insectology 2014
  6. Vincent Doublet, Maureen Labarussias, Joachim R. deMiranda, Robin F.A. Moritz. Bees under stress: sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality across the life cycle. 2014 doe:10.1111/1462-2920.12426
  7. Wanyi Zhu, Daniel R. Schmehl, Christopher A Mullin, James L Frazier "Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae" PlosOne Jan 8 2014
  8. Caroline de Almeida Rossi, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Daiana Antonia Tavares, Brain Morpophysiology of Africanized Bee Apis mellifera Exposed to Sublethal Doses of Imadacloprid. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 7 April 2013.
  9. Mary J. Palmer, Christopher Moffat, Nastja Saranzewa, Jenni Harvey Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honey bees. Nature. 27 March 2013
  10. Regiane Alves Oliveira, Thaisa Cristina Road, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Osmar Malaspina, Side Effects of Thiamethosam on the Brain and Midgut of the Africanized honeybee Apis mellifera Wiley Periodicals, 2013
  11. Gennaro DiPrisco, Valeria Cavaliere, Desiderato Annoscia et al "Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees" national Academy of Sciences of the United States.
  12. Sally Williamson and Geraldine Wright, "Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honey bees." Journal of Experimental Biology 2013
  13. Jeroen P VanderSluijs, Noa Simon-Delso, Dave Goulson, Laura Maxim, Jean-MarcBonmatin, Luc P. Belzunes "Neonicotinoids, bee disorders and the sustainability of pollinator services" Current Opinion Environmental Sustainability 2013
  14. Jeffrey S Pettis et al. "Crop Pollination Exposes Honey Bees to Pesticides Which Alters Their Susceptability to the Gut Pathogen Nosema Ceranae". 2013 PlosOne
  15. Dave Goulson: An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid pesticides. Journal of Applied Ecology 2013
  16. Rosemary Mason, Henk Tennekes, Francisco Sanchez-Bayo; "Immune Suppression by Neonicotinoid Insecticides at the Root of Global Wildlife Declines." Journal of Environmental Immunology. 2013
  17. Van Dijk, Tessa C, Van Staalduinen, Marja A, Van de Sluijs, Jeroen P. "Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imadacloprid." May 2013 PLOS ONE
  18. Gill, Richard J, Ram0s-Rodrigues, Oscar, & Raine, Nigel E. "Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual - and colony - level traits in bees." Nature 2012
  19. Tappara, A. Marton,D. Gioria, C. Zanella, A. Solda, L. Marzaro, M. Vivan, L. Girolami, V. (2012) “Assessment of the environmental exposure of honeybees to particulate matter containing neonicotinoid insecticides coming from corn coated seeds”
  20. Krupke, C.H. Hunt, G.J. Eitzer, B.D. Andino, G. Given, K (2012) “Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields”
  21. Toshiro Yamada Kazuko Yamada Naoko Wada "Influence of Dinotefuran and Clothianidin on a Bee Colony. Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Kanazawa (Japan) University
  22. Mickael Henry et al: A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. 2012
  23. Jeffrey Pettis, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Josepine Johnson, Galen Dively Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in  increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema. Naturwissenschaften 3 January, 2012
  24. Cedric Alaux, Jean-Luc Brunet and Yves Le Conte "Interactions between Nosema microspores and  neonicotnoid weakened honey bees" Environmental Microbiology, March 2010
  25. Aliouane et al "Subchronic exposure to sub-lethal doses of pesticide: effects on behaviour" Environmental Toxology and Chemistry 2009

Summary of Findings: Health Canada

Evaluation of Canadian Bee Mortalities in 2013 Related to Neonicotinoid Pesticides

Evaluation of Canadian Bee Mortalities that Coincided with  Corn Planting in Spring 2012

Government and NGO reports:

  1. Neonicotinoids in  Quebec
  2. Xerces Society: Beyond the Birds and Bees
  3. Report from the European Parliament on Pesticide Research
  4. UK Parliamentary environmental audit
  5. Xerces Society Are Neonicotinoids Killing Bees?
  6. Congressional Research Service. Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides
  7. Pesticides and Honey Bees: State of the  Science
  8. The Impact of the Nation's Most Widely Used Insecticides on Birds. The American Bird Conservatory


  1.     "Dying Bees and the Social Production of Ignorance" Daniel Lee Kleinman Sage Publishing
  2.     Website of the Grey-Bruce Owen Sound Federal Liberals on Neonicotinoids
  3. video on bees and pesticides
  4.     Press Release from the European Food Safety Authority
  5.     From Earth Focus: Video on neonicotinoids
  6.     From The Disappearance of the Bees video
  7.     Dan Rather reports on neonicotinoids and the EPA
  8.     Dan Davidson's PPt presentation to the OBA Summer Meeting
  9.     Bee Bulletin: Ban Neonicotinoids, Save the Bees
  10.     10 Facts about Neonicotinoids in Ontario: Susan Chan